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The eddy-resolving (1/12°) global ocean reanalysis GLORYS12 is assessed against 14 years (2002–2015) of independent hydrographic observations collected at 59.5°N in the North Atlantic. Two multi-observations statistical analyses, ISAS-15 and ARMOR-3D, and an eddy-permitting (1/4°) reanalysis, GLORYS025, also contribute to this comparison. The mean thermohaline structure along the 59.5°N section revealed by the observations is well-reproduced by GLORYS12, except for the overflow waters. A good agreement with observations is found for linear trends over the whole period, exhibiting a dipole-like pattern with a cooling/freshening in the main thermocline and a warming/salinization below. However, localized discrepancies with observations suggest the need for improvement in the reanalysis system (especially in the overflows representation and the consistency between the forcing and data assimilation system) and the deep observational array. The reanalysis reliably represents the ocean heat content in the upper 700-m layer but shows significant differences with observations between 700 and 2,000 m. The meridional volume and heat transports across the 59.5°N section are compared for years when ADCP observations were available. The reanalysis does not reproduce the variability observed in the western boundary current but agrees well with observed transports in the other parts of the section. The reanalysis reproduces the major mesoscale eddy features that contribute to the meridional transport and provides the large-scale context of their location. The analysis of time correlation at all measurement points demonstrated that GLORYS12 is the most accurate among the analyzed datasets used in this study to represent and explain the observed ocean characteristics and variability along that section.
Most components of the composition of natural waters exist in several phases – inthe water mass, in suspensions, colloids, on Fe and Mn hydroxides, in detritus. They are oftencharacterized by different toxicity. The smaller the particle of the suspension, the higher is itssorption capacity. Priority pollutants and their content in urban water bodies of NizhnyNovgorod in the summer-autumn low water period of 2020 were identified: organicsubstances, petroleum products, ammonium, surfactants, iron and manganese. More than halfof their total transport is carried out by suspensions. In the estuaries of rivers with particles inthe range of 0.22-2 microns, up to 70% of iron is carried by suspensions, up to 45% ofmanganese and about half of petroleum products and surfactants. Studied water objects (rivers,springs and water tunnels) are also polluted with synthetic microfibers of anthropogenic origin.
Rural population decline has been observed in most developed and emerging economies but has been especially apparent in postsocialist countries. In this paper, we investigate the spatial patterns and the determinants of the rural population dynamics during the transition period from 1991 to 2010 in Tyumen Province, Russia, with the aim of better understanding the forces underlying depopulation. We use descriptive and exploratory statistical tools to analyze data from population censuses and district-level statistics of agriculture. Our results reveal distinct differences in the spatial clusters of the population increase and decline in the first and second decades of the post-Soviet era. We argue that these differences reflect the penetration of market relations into the countryside. The emergence of market forces initially advantaged the areas that were more suited to agriculture, which experienced population growth in the 1990s. Later, the drop in agricultural output, market-driven restructuring of farms, and introduction of labor-saving technologies reduced employment in agriculture. During the 2000s, labor opportunities in agriculture were no longer statistically related to rural population dynamics, while population dynamics in the villages have increasingly been determined by transport accessibility to larger markets, especially to the provincial capital. Governments need to be sensitive to these spatial and temporal population dynamics to foster opportunities in the countryside, avoid the negative side effects of depopulation on local economies and ensure the provision of social services.
. Currently for a mining science it is actively developing branch of knowledge, called "satellite technology", which has diverse practical applications for geodesy, mine surveying, control systems, mining logistic and transport complex, ensuring the safety and control of the risks there creation of tools and methods of the implementation of energy efficiency strategies. For specialists of mine surveying and geodesy introduction of practice, satellite-positioning methods has become almost revolutionary technological revolution that led to a radical revision of the structure of geodetic support of the country, fundamental changes in the methods field and laboratory work on the earth's surface. There are examples of current uses of satellite technology over the last decade at the leading companies of the mining sector. The creation of new methods of technical and economic audit determines the need for generation and proof of the most common and objective criteria and evaluation indicators for the design phase and launch of the satellite equipment. To extend the lifetime of spacecraft is pro-posed in the schematic design phase to calculate the possible effects of electrostatic discharges and to give recommendations for reducing their negative influence. Developed a new method that allows for 2-3 orders of magnitude to reduce the complexity of calculation for the pattern of spreading of the currents on the surface of spacecraft from electrostatic discharge. The method is based by the idea of macromodeling. The accuracy of calculations is very high (the inaccuracy does not exceed 1%).
Spatial inequality can lead to unexpected consequences, especially in large countries like Russia. State officials’ attempts to stop the spread of the coronavirus pandemic led to a national lockdown, which was supposed to dramatically reduce the daily mobility of people and therefore the likelihood of infection. At the same time, the Russian government did not introduce an emergency regime, and the measures to support the population and business were criticized by experts as insufficient. Using daily data on mobility in 308 municipalities in Russia, we examined the unevenness of the decline in the level of mobility depending on the level of wages. The results show that the poorer the municipality, the smaller was the mobility decline, that is, the poorer areas were more vulnerable to the pandemic risks. The work also illustrates the larger amplitude of mobility in rich versus poor areas during the period of exiting from the lockdown.
This article brings attention to the diversity of urban conditions, actors, agency, and development paths in contrast to the imperatives of urban entrepreneurialism and competitiveness. Rather than presupposing the critical role of exogenous sources of growth, the aim of the current paper is in exploring empirically the role of local agency in achieving continuity or change through the lens of urban renewal. The data is drawn from three case studies of small, company towns (monogorods) in Russia. The paper concludes that in small towns local actors and endogenous resources play a strong role in achieving positive change. For Russian monogorods there is a tendency to ‘merge’ different types of agency into an all-embracing local-based leadership which despite the hierarchical power relations allows for certain decision-making autonomy from the central government. The study indicates the need to better account for diverse forms of human agency in various fields of urban development. While conventional approaches tend to prioritize formal hierarchies and derive agency from static positions of authority and economic power, we demonstrate that actors may assume different roles that do not neatly reflect their positions in a fixed and pre-defined manner or narrowly determined economic interests.
The annual balance of biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs; carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)) in the atmosphere is well studied. However, the contributions of specific natural land sources and sinks remain unclear, and the effect of different human land use activities is understudied. A simple way to do this is to evaluate GHG soil emissions. For CO2, it usually comprises 60–75% of gross respiration in natural terrestrial ecosystems, while local human impact can increase this share to almost 100%. Permafrost-affected soils occupying 15% of the land surface mostly in the Eurasia and North America contain approximately 25% of the total terrestrial carbon. The biogenic GHG soil emissions from permafrost are 5% of the global total, which makes these soils extremely important in the warming world. Measurements of CO2, methane, and nitrous oxide, from eighteen locations in the Arctic and Siberian permafrost, across tundra, steppe, and north taiga domains of Russia and Svalbard, were conducted from August to September during 2014–2017 in 37 biotopes representing natural conditions and different types of human impact. We demonstrate that land use caused significant alteration in soil emission and net fluxes of GHGs compared to natural rates, regardless of the type and duration of human impact and the ecosystem type. The cumulative effect of land use factors very likely supported an additional net-source of CO2 into the atmosphere because of residual microbial respiration in soil after the destruction of vegetation and primary production under anthropogenic influence. Local drainage effects were more significant for methane emission. In general, land use factors enforced soil emission and net-sources of CO2 and N2O and weakened methane sources. Despite the extended heat supply, high aridity caused significantly lower emissions of methane and nitrous oxide in ultra-continental Siberian permafrost soils. However, these climatic features support higher soil CO2 emission rates, in spite of dryness, owing to the larger phytomass storage, presence of tree canopies, thicker active layer, and greater expressed soil fissuring. Furthermore, the “Birch effect” was much less expressed in ultra-continental permafrost soils than in permafrost-free European soils. Models and field observations demonstrated that the areal human footprint on soil CO2 fluxes could be comparable to the effect of climate change within a similar timeframe. Settlements and industrial areas in the tundra function as year-round net CO2 sources, mostly owing to the lack of vegetation cover. As a result, they could compensate for the natural C-balance on significantly larger areas of surrounding tundra.
The article is devoted to the study of the largest lake of the island of Kunashir – the lake Peschanoe (means Sandy) – and the adjacent sections of the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. Despite its considerable size and relatively easy transport accessibility, the lake still remains relatively poorly explored. The topography of its bottom was studied, in particular, the maximum depth of the lake (23 m) was measured; hydrological and hydrobiological surveys of the lake were conducted; the influence of the wind on the intensity of mixing of the lake’s waters was assessed; lagoon origin of the lake was proven; the coastline of the Sea of Okhotsk in the vicinity of the lake was examined. It was revealed that the lake lost connection with the sea long enough so that there are no signs of salt in its water, but not so long enough that it stopped being inhabited by mesohalobiotic crustaceans. The influence of typhoons on the mixing of the lake’s waters is very great that is surprising for such a large lake. This is facilitated by its geographical position on the Sernovodsky isthmus, due to which it is open to both winds blowing from east and west.
Using the territory of the Orlovskoye Polesye National Park as a case study within the catchment basin of the Oka River (Mid-Russian Uplands, Oryol Region, Russia), we obtained palaeoecological data for studying response of forest landscapes within the forest-steppe ecotone to climate change and human impact through the Late Holocene. The paper presents reconstruction of environmental change on a local to regional scales based on plant macrofossil, spore-pollen and testate amoeba records from a peat core along with reconstruction of woodland coverage inferred from pollen data. Over the past 4000 years, the total woodland coverage has fluctuated insignificantly, ranging from 38 to 52%, while the structure of the forest has changed radically. Prior to 1500 cal. yr BP, both birch-pine and mixed temperate deciduous forests of oak, elm, ash and lime with Scots pine and well-developed shrub understory of hazel and alder grew in the region. The subsequent agricultural colonization of the territory led to a reduction of a broadleaved trees in forest stands since 1500 cal. yr BP. During the last few centuries, human activity largely associated with cutting/burning trees and farming favored the expansion of secondary forests dominated by birch.
New oak tree-ring chronologies for European Russia built with subfossil oak wood excavated from
the alluvial deposits of the Zapadnaya Dvina (Daugava) River and archaeological samples from Novgorod
and Vyazma are presented. They have been matched with the nearest absolutely dated tree-ring
chronology constructed in Polotsk (Republic of Belarus) and dated to the periods AD649–1382 (Zapadnaya
Dvina), AD 1059–1386 (Novgorod), and AD 1074–1306 (Vyazma). Dates have been further confirmed
via comparison with subfossil oaks from Smarhon (Republic of Belarus) and Baltic 1 chronology
as well as by radiocarbon dating. Newly built medieval chronologies can be used for dating and provenancing
of oak wood originating from archaeological sites and natural archives.
Newly-formed soils of wastewater disposal fields from two sugar refineries in forest-steppe zone (Kursk region, European Russia) were studied. Among factors of soil formation on sugar wastewater lagoons the geochemical influence of wastewater mixed with diluted filtration and transport-washing sludge stands out. We have revealed key physico-chemical and microbiological properties of such soils formed under different moisture regimes, substrates, vegetation, and duration of use. Compared to conditionally background soils (Luvic (Anthric) Chernozems), the newly formed soils show shift of pH values to alkaline ones, carbonation, increase of soil organic carbon, growth in mobile forms of phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen. Microflora in studied soils is identical in composition to background soils, but it differs significantly in structure. In soils formed in the decommissioned wastewater lagoons of an active sugar refinery, a higher number of bacteria with low participation of Micromycetes and Actinomycetes was noted, which indicates active destruction of organic matter. In soils of the recultivated and completely abandoned sugar wastewater lagoons indicated as Calcaric Someric Phaeozem, a higher number of Actinomycetes was noted than in the background soils.
Space remains a largely unexploited frontier for cutting-edge research and technology development, policy development, and progressive education and training. The Sun accounts for more than 99% of the mass of the entire solar system. The incremental or transformative advances in civilisation have been the direct or indirect product of the influence of the Sun on Earth, being the ultimate source of energy. There still resides huge unexploited potential that demands humanity’s sophisticated understanding of the solar system and the four mysteries of the cosmos: light, gravity, space and time or space-time. The solar wind and its effects on space weather is an area of active research with immediate implications for early warning systems and the overall wellbeing of life on Earth. The sun's magnetic field and its variability as well as the changes in the atmosphere and their effects can cause detrimental effects. Solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), high-speed wind and energetic particles negatively impact power grids. Solar storms interfere with computers, banking systems, and disrupt satellites and GNSS technology. Charge particle emissions cause Aurora Australis and Aurora borealis. Mild space weather has degraded electric power quality, perturbed navigation systems, interrupted satellite functions and are hazardous to astronauts' health. Severe storms interfere with electric power system and cause the loss of satellites due to damaged electronics or increased orbital drag. An in-depth study of the ionosphere and climate helps to obtain information on their impact on agriculture, telecommunications system, and satellites. In summary, the following are usually affected by space weather events and processes.
Second home mobility is a well-known phenomenon in many countries, but is widely prominent in Russia, where millions of city-dwellers move to rural areas during the summertime. Combating long-term economic decline and depopulation, second home mobility creates a promising chance to revitalize the countryside. While this phenomenon is largely neglected by official statistics, we suggest using satellite imagery of night-time lights to investigate its spatial and temporal patterns. We did this with the example of Yaroslavl oblast in Russia. This region neighbors the Moscow Capital Region. It experiences a significant inflow of second home residents. By tracking the seasonal pixel-wise changes of night-time light radiance in monthly composites of satellite imagery from 2015 to 2019, we located hotspots of second homes and factors determining their spatial spread in rural areas. The results were evaluated with field research. Our results confirmed earlier conclusions that second homes’ locations in rural areas are largely determined by their proximity to Moscow, natural conditions, and transport accessibility. City-dwellers often choose small and even fully-abandoned villages for their second homes, which stresses the important role of second home mobility in preserving cultural landscapes. The proposed data and methods are limited by missing data for the northern regions during summer months and are more suitable for areas beyond the urban fringe where night-time lights data is not biased by the “overglow” of large cities.
Palaeoseismology studies the footprints of ancient earthquakes to improve the knowledge about the modern seismicity of the territory. A ground-penetrating radar (GPR), among other geophysical methods, is used for quick determination of shallow stratigraphy – displaced, oblique layers within the fault zone. GPR data interpretation from diverse and complex reflection patterns of the fault zone heavily depends on the interpreter's experience. The range of different fault zone parameters in which this method can be successfully applied has not yet been investigated. We used a numerical simulation of GPR data to determine how GPR images the elements of faults (fault plane, hanging wall, footwall) in comparison with other reflections. Furthermore, we studied which parameters have the most significant impact on GPR wave patterns. We performed a series of numerical models of a fault, changing its geometry with increasing complexity from elementary models to realistic ones. The resulting synthetic profiles allowed finding specific GPR signatures from the fault plane, the hanging wall and the footwall. We collected field GPR data from two different fault zones and examined them for verification.
Peatlands store massive amounts of organic carbon, but the fate of this carbon remains unclear as global climate continues to warm. The age of peatland inception and the main drivers of peat initiation are one of the most important issues in Holocene paleoecology, especially for the numerous but under investigated peatlands in European Russia. This paper introduces new peatland initiation ages for 44 mires in three areas located in the central part of European Russia within the Polesie landscape belt. This region is characterised by waterlogged sandy plains and flat surface topography. Phases of peatland initiation were compared with Holocene fire regime derived from macro-charcoal data as well as with regional climatic reconstructions. We found that peat inception in the region started around 12,000 cal yr BP, but the most active phases of peatland initiation took place during the periods 8500–7500, 7000–6000, 5300–5800, 4000–3500 and 1700–1200 cal yr BP. Expect for rapid peat growth during the early Holocene, peatland initiation mostly coincided with warm climatic periods and increased fire frequency. Forest soil paludification in poorly drained Polesie landscapes was presumably enhanced by reduced evapotranspiration and changes in water balance due to disturbance of forest cover after wildfires. We expect that rising air temperature in the current century will cause higher fire frequencies and may encourage waterlogging of forests and ecosystem transformation
This textbook on political geography is devoted to a discipline concerned with the spatial dimensions of politics. This course is an introduction to the study of political science, international relations and area studies, providing a systemic approach to the spatial dimension of political processes at all levels. It covers their basic elements, including states, supranational unions, geopolitical systems, regions, borders, capitals, dependent, and internationally administered territories. Political geography develops fundamental theoretical approaches that give insight into the peculiarities of foreign and domestic policies. The ability to use spatial analysis techniques allows determining patterns and regularities of political phenomena both at the global and the regional and local levels.
Shrinking cities – places which need to ‘narrow down’ the too spacious settings – pose challenges to the mainstream urban planning which naturalizes growth and direct approaches advocating it. While shrinking cities are located worldwide, responses to the phenomenon are place-specific depending on the knowledge and resources of decision-makers, as well as the discourses of the desired spatial development. In this sense, it is still not precisely clear why and how urban planning changes under conditions of shrinkage. Since the beginning of the 1990s, many Russian cities began to lose population. Excluding the oil and gas provinces, the Russian Arctic has become a ‘showcase’ of the country’s population exodus. Our contribution is based on empirical evidence from Vorkuta (Komi Republic, Russia) an Arctic city with around 54 thousand people which is among the fastest shrinking cities of the country. Due to the simultaneous need for improving housing conditions, dealing with negative physical effects of shrinkage, and high maintenance costs of housing and infrastructure the local stakeholders had to come up with a new approach toward planning – the so-called ‘controlled shrinkage’ that helped reduce sprawl and fragmentation.
This book summarizes the author’s research resulted in developing the satellite radiothermovision approach which allows retrieving dynamical and energy characteristics of atmospheric mesoscale and synoptic-scale processes based on a close scheme of satellite passive radiometry data processing.
The book introduces new applications of the satellite passive microwave observations to detailed systematic study of tropical cyclones’ evolution, climatology and characteristics of atmospheric rivers, parameters of global atmospheric circulation and their variations on climatically significant scales.
The results presented in the book demonstrate a clear relation between the convergence/divergence of latent heat from the lower atmosphere to the center of tropical cyclone with variations of its intensity and provide a better insight into the tropical cyclone dynamical energy balance based on remote data.
The city of Yerevan, Armenia has undergone major environmental and economic changes after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate the changes of the Land Cover (LC) and Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) in Yerevan and analyze relations between them, (ii) study the relationships between land surface temperature (LST) and environmental factors/parameters, (iii) explore the accuracy of satellite derived LST. LC and SUHI were derived from Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI-TIRS images (years 1989, 2000, 2010 and 2018) by means of three Machine Learning algorithms and the Urban Thermal Field Variance Index (UTFVI) ecological evaluation index, respectively. The comparison between Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and satellite LSTs showed that the overall spatial pattern of Landsat and UAV LSTs matched. It was found that the green and built-up areas were the main factors affecting LST variation in Yerevan. The results of the LC change analysis revealed an expansion of built-up areas and the reduction of green spaces. Yerevan shares almost an equal percentage of land for the excellent and the worst categories of the UTFVI. The transformations from excellent to the worst category of UTFVI were mainly related to the loss of green spaces, while the opposite transformations were associated with the gain of vegetation cover, the construction of new districts and the reduction/cessation of anthropogenic heat emission. It appeared that the urban construction had possibly led to the improvement of UTFVI index in the case of no/low anthropogenic heat emission.
Long-term (2009–2019) field studies of the CO2 fluxes over the Valday upland in north-western European Russia were performed in an old-growth spruce-dominated forest subject to the combined effects of climate change, bark beetle attacks and windfall events. The annual carbon uptake within the study area decreased from − 300 g C m− 2 yr−1 in 2010–2011 to − 95 g C m− 2 yr−1 in 2018 as a result of progressive tree mortality. However, mortality did not cause a significant reduction in specific ecosystem respiration. The respiration of the damaged forest was formed by efflux from soil (64.8%), living vegetation (15.5%), hotspots under dry standing trees (12.1%) and decomposition of woody debris (7.6%). High correlations between net ecosystem exchange and dry standing spruce stocks and average soil CO2 efflux were found. The decrease in the carbon sink was followed by a decline in evapotranspiration from 0.0142 ± 0.0003 g H2O m− 2 s−1 for May–October 2010 to 0.0116 ± 0.0002 g H2O m− 2 s−1 in 2018. We assumed that the decrease in carbon uptake was due to both the reduction in primary tree production and the decrease in the area of the unaffected stands. Our estimates show that an increase in tree mortality up to 27% of a stand area could turn an old-growth spruce forest into a net source of CO2. This should be taken into account when considering human-induced and climate-related effects on boreal forests.